תגית: tel aviv

הכנסייה היוונית אורתודוכסית

הכנסייה היוונית אורתודוכסית

נצרות בתלֿ אביב – יפו בוועידה שנערכה בשנת 451 לספירה, באיסטנבול בשכונה הנקראת עד היום כלקדון התפלגה הכנסייה הקתולית ונוצר זרם דתי חדש שהאמינו שלמשיחם ישו היה טבע אלוהי עוד בחייו. הם זנחו את ההשקפה שהייתה מקובלת עד אז בהתאם להוראתו של האפיפיור ליאו הראשון, שהציל את רומא פעמיים מהתקפה קשה  העדה החדשה נקראה בכנסייה "היוונית אורתודוכסית" והיא ראתה את עצמה כממשיכתה של הכנסייה הביזנטית המקורית שהחלה את דרכה בימיו של ישו.

ולכן התפילה נערכת בה בשפה היוונית שהייתה שלטת בכל העולם הידוע אז.

למרות שיפו איננה מקום קדוש בנצרות בכל זאת יש בה מספר לא מבוטל של כנסיות לכל הזרמים ועכשיו אנו מספרים על כנסייה יוונית אורתודוכסית הנמצאת ברחוב לואי פסטר ליד מתחם אנדרומדה, הכנסייה היא לאזכור פועלו הגדול של אב הכנסייה ג'ורגיוס הקדוש שהיה חייל רומי בתקופתו של הקיסר דיאוקלטיאנוס שהתנגד נחרצות לנצרות ונתן הוראה לחייליו להרוג כל נוצרי שימצאו. ג'ורג'י שלנו לא ביצע את הפקודה בגלל אמונתו שלו. הוא עצמו נולד ונקבר בלוד. כנראה שגם המקרה ארע בלוד ובכל הציורים או הפסלים המציינים את המקרה תמיד נראה את ג'ורג' הקדוש רוכב על סוס אביר כחייל רומי והורג את הדרקון שמסמל לנו את השלטון הרומי האכזר. אבל ג'ורג' מנצח אותו בכוח האמונה.

הכנסייה הזו הנמצאת ליד מתחם "אנדרומדה" נבנתה במחצית המאה ה-19 ובכדי לממן את בנייתה הקימה הכנסייה את הקניון הראשון בארץ "סוק-א-דייר" שליד השעון ביפו ומדמי השכירות מימנו את המשך הבנייה.

כנסייה נוספת של הקהילה היוונית אורתודוכסית שנבנתה בשלהי המאה ה-17, שהיא לזכרו ולכבודו של "מר מיכאל" המלאך הטוב, ונמצאת ברחוב נתיב המזלות הרחוב המקביל לנמל יפו. כיום התפילות נערכות בה והיא גם כנסייה מרהיבה ביופיה ובעיקר משקיפה אל הים הגדול.

על כל מבנה של הכנסייה היווניתֿֿאורתודקסית ניתן לראות את הסמל שלה בצורת האות האנגלית T גדולה ומהרגל של T מוסיפים את האות P . אותיות אלו נלקחו מהאלפא-ביתא היווני והם מסמלות את המילים "שומרי הקבר הקדוש". הנקרא ביוונית "טאפוס פילוקס" טאפוס קבר ופילוקס שומרים.

 המשך יבוא

 

Stories of Jaffa

Stories of Jaffa


 Stories of JaffaBy Markel YacovStory’s of Jaffa
We are standing here on the Jaffa Hill, or as we say in Hebrew – "TEL" Jaffo. From here we can see the entire Sea Shore. How did Jaffa turn into an important port, and how was this hill created?Sailors were roaming this sea from the dawn of History, and since this harbor with it’s natural bay and water break provided a very good shelter, they used to dock here on the way between Egypt and Syria in order to discharge some of their merchandise and then load on board local products, such as the Jaffa oranges.Before the compass was invented, seamen used to navigate by the sun or by the stars, but whenever there was cloudy weather, they didn’t have any means of telling where they were. Therefore, they used to sail at a very close range to the shore and to keep eye contact with the shore.

From time immemorial, Jaffa, an important strategic point on the highway between Egypt and Syria, was a target of many conquerors. To mention some of them,
we had the Phoenicians,
the Greeks,
the Romans,
the Byzantines,
the Crusaders,
the Mamluks,
the Turks,
the British
and not to forget, the Israelis.
All those who conquered the city, actually destroyed it and built a new one on top of it. That’s how this “Tel” was created, by layer after layer, from time of the bible and until nowadays.

Napoleon Canons
Napoleon came to Jaffa on March 1799, during his ‘middle east’ episode. He conquered the city in no time and literally destroyed it, so actually Jaffa as we know it today, is from 1800 and on. Then he tried to conquer Acre as well, but failed after several attempts. On his way back from Acre to Egypt by boat, his soldiers dropped the Canons along the shore, and these canons are the original ones used by Napoleon, positioned here as a memorial. Here we have a small canon and a bit further, next to St. Peter’s church is a larger one, a nine pounds canon. The cannons were operated by inserting black powder at the lower edge, putting an iron ball at the top and lighting up the powder thru a small hole, which caused it powder to explode and the explosion threw the ball
to a target up to a distance of about 150 meters. This is how they created a hole in the wall of Jaffa and burst into the city, and the rest is History.

Napoleon stayed in Jaffa about one or two nights. The monks here say that this is the room he slept in.

We are now in front of St. Peter’s Church. And as you may know, Jesus had 12 Apostles or rather students- faithful followers.
The 1st and most important one was Peter. According to the New Testament, after St. Peter got the key to heaven from Jesus he arrived here and performed his 1st miracle.

The miracle was that he brought alive a made named Tabitah. The miracle took place on this spot where we are standing now, and in memory of this event, the Franciscans built here the church and the monastery. This particular building was built on the ruins of an ancient church. The first church was built in 1642 and this one in 1882, donated by the king of Spain. Therefore the church is in Spanish Baroque style.

The Franciscan order is a Christian order started by Franciscus of Assisi and the Franciscans were appointed by the Pope to be the Guardians of the Holly Land.

As you know, on every public house you can always find a sign to whom the building belongs or who built it. It doesn’t matter which religion we’re talking about. Look up and you will see St. Peter’s sign. You see the crown, symbol of the Kingdom of Heaven. You also see the 2 keys. Because St. Peter got the key to heaven from Jesus, he became the “substitute” of Jesus on Earth. Underneath, in the white sign, you can see 5 crosses, which symbolize the Crusaders. The two hands are the symbol of the Franciscan order. One is dressed and the other is bare.

When Franciscus of Assisi arrived to Rome to ask for the Pope’s permission to establish the "Franciscan order", he identified with Jesus so much that he got “DESTIGMATA”. “Destigmata” is the hole in his hand, the hole that was made by the nail when Jesus was crucified to the cross. The bare hand symbolizes Jesus and the other hand symbolizes Franciscus. All churches belonging to the Franciscan order have this sign.

The Jewish House
Till 1840, due to religious reasons, there was no official Jewish community in Jaffa. 1200 B.C, more or less the time that the Israelites arrived from Egypt to the Promised Land, each of the 12 tribes had to conquer the properties assigned to them. The tribe of "Dan", to whose territory Jaffa belonged, didn’t succeed to conquer Jaffa. For this reason, the High Rabbinate in Jerusalem, didn’t give the permit to establish here in Jaffa a Jewish community. Of course I do believe that one or two, or maybe more Jews lived here.

In 1820 a Jew named Ieshaia Ajiman, arrived to Jaffa, on his way to Jerusalem. He was a rich man who dealt with the Turkish Sultan Army, and he bought a three-floor house for the Jews of Jaffa. This house served as a hostel and a synagogue for the Jews that used to pass thru Jaffa port on the way to Jerusalem. This place was known as the Jewish Court – “Dar el Yahud”.

Vatican Embassy
Even though there are many Christians and many Christian churches in Israel, the Vatican, until last few years, didn’t recognize the State of Israel. This situation changed only recently, but still the Vatican doesn’t recognize Jerusalem as Israel’s capital. This is the most natural location for the Vatican Embassy of course, because this is the Franciscan church and as I mentioned before, they are the Holly Land Guardians. Here St. Peter performed his first miracle and became the first Pope, and now Pope John the 2nd, during his visit to Israel last year, opened the Vatican Embassy to Israel.

The Catholic Hostel
This hostel was built in 1642 to provide the pilgrims, on their way to Jerusalem, a place to stay overnight. Look above and you can see the Franciscan sign, which could be immediately recognized by the pilgrims who came to Jaffa and where looking for their own sign. They wouldn’t get inside if they didn’t see the sign of their own order. Here we can see the Franciscan Catholic sign.

We shall continue walking and we shall see a hostel with the Greek orthodox sign. They will never mix, because if for example an orthodox will go into the Franciscan church they will try to convert him and this is of course forbidden in any religion.

The Greek Orthodox Monastery
Right next to the Franciscan Hostel, we have the Greek Orthodox Monastery, which served for same purposes, only of course to the Orthodox Pilgrims.

The House of Simon the Tanner.
After St. Peter preformed his first miracle, which we mentioned earlier in the church, he came here to visit his friend, "Simon the Tanner". He climbed up to this roof, and here he had a vision – a large object came to him from heaven, like a white sheet, and many different animals, and a voice told him to eat them. He refused and the voice repeated the command three times. He understood this was a symbol urging him to go to the gentiles.

Statue of Faith
It has three parts. On the top, you can see the conquest of Jericho. As you know, Jericho was the first city the Israelites conquered, by circling its walls seven times, after which the walls fell down. You should know that when the crusaders arrived at Jerusalem in 1099, they tried to take it the same way – by circling its walls. Of course, they failed.

To the right, Jacob’s dream. GENESIS 28 / 11

To the left, the sacrifice of Isaac. GENESIS 22 / 3

The ‘Hammam’

This institution exists in the east ever since the Roman era in Israel. The Hammam used to serve as a meeting place for the male population. All the daily affairs, commerce, personal problems and gossip used to go around while bathing and having sauna being served coffee or treats.

 

Neve Zedek

Neve Zedek

Neve Zedek

The First Neighborhood
By Markel YacovWe are standing outside the site of ancient Jaffa. This entire area
was built in the 1880's. In the distance, we can see Jaffa. Up until 1860, walls surrounded Jaffa, and then people started building outside the walls. The trade between Israel and Europe was increasing, and since Jaffa was the main harbor of the country, the city started to develop and increase in population. It’s not clear why, but all the Christians chose to live in the south, the Moslems in the north, along the sea, and the Jews had no choice but to go to the northeast. On the east side no one could live since the area was used for plantations. More and more Jews came every year. In the 1880’s over a thousand Jews lived in Jaffa. The rent rose, and life was hard on the Jaffa Jews. So, a small group of Jews from the middle class decided to build themselves a separate neighborhood. The only possible area was northeast of Jaffa. The area for the neighborhood was purchased from a rich Jew named Aharon Shlush. An architect divided The area to 48 units – one for each member. Each of them was asked to build a small house, containing two rooms, a kitchen and a bathroom. The residents strictly kept the neighborhood clean and orderly.
Since the 1920’s, the area was neglected, and in the 1970’s a man named Mr. Dalal came from England, and offered to donate money for restoring the area, if it would be named after his daughter Suzan, who died at a very young age.
Both buildings were schools. In 1896 the Hebrew School was founded in Jaffa, and after ten years the school moved to the Neve-Shalom neighborhood, not far away from here. The school was maintained by two organizations – Aliance and the Zion Lovers. In 1911 an argument started between the two organizations, over what language the teaching should be – Alliance decided with French, while the “Zion Lovers” wanted the students to learn in Hebrew. In 1913 the organizations separated, and each founded its own school. To the left, the Alliance school, and the right the “Zion Lovers school”. In the Alliance building, on April 1948, the ETZEL organization had its headquarters, and from here the people left to take over Jaffa. The second building was the headquarters of the HAGANA organization.
The whole area was designed by the architect Shlomo Aharonson. In the square, we have an example of an orange plantation, And we can see the watering system used by the Arabs in the last century.
Mosaic on the wall.
The Mosaic was designed in 3 parts show the development of life, from Jaffa to Tel Aviv.
The first picture –
On the horizon we can see the Jaffa Harbor and its ships, and we can see the harbor’s Light Tower. We can also see the orange tree – the symbol of Jaffa.
In the left side of the picture we can see a palm tree – the symbol of the east.
In the center of the picture we can see the important Jewish people of Jaffa. Shimon Rokach – the founder of “Neve Zedek”.
Zerach Barnett, the founder of “Neve Shalom”, and also the founder of the first Jewish neighborhood outside the walls of Jerusalem – "Mea Shearim". He also founded the first colony in the country – “Petach Tikva”.
Haim Amzaleg – The British vice consul in Jaffa, we can see him with his uniform. He was so proud of his position that he always wore his uniforms.
Second Picture –
In the horizon we can see the foundation of Tel Aviv, which took place on April 1909. In the center, you can see the first train that was built in the middle east in 1892. It went from Jaffa to Jerusalem. When the British took over the land in 1918 they changed the track so it would fit to European trains. That’s why they had to lift the bridge a little higher.

Nachalat Yitzchak Streets of the Neighborhood

Nachalat Yitzchak: Eighty Year Jubilee: The Streets of the Neighborhood

On the sixteenth of March, 1925, the cornerstone of the first house built in Nachalat Yitzchak was laid. This neighborhood was founded by a group of Jewish Zionists from Lithuania who sought to establish a rural settlement not far from Tel Aviv.

After copious hardships, coping with malaria, financial crisis, security threats and a myriad of other problems, Nachalat Yitzchak expanded and flourished. Ever since the fourth Aliya (immigration to Israel), thousands of Jews, both new and veteran immigrants, have come to settle there; many factories, workshops and offices were established and its rural nature faded away until it became annexed to Tel Aviv and turned into another one of the large, Jewish city's many districts.

Now, while we are celebrating the eightieth anniversary of the founding of Nachalat Yitzchak, its residents will be given a review that will include an explanation of the names that were chosen for the streets of the neighborhood. This is just one of the many activities organized for the commemoration of Nachalat Yitzchak's heritage, initiated by The Nachalat Yitzchak Renart Center of Culture and Heritage.

 *  *  *

When the initiators of the neighborhood met in Kovna (the former Lithuanian capital) after the purchase of the land for its establishment had been arranged, it was decided that the settlement would be called Nachalat Yitzchak, after Rabbi Yitzchak Elchanan Spector (1817 – 1896). Rabbi Yitzchak Elchanan, the revered rabbi, who headed the Rabbinate of Kovna for thirty two years, was considered the most important rabbinical authority of the times and he was granted the status of a kind of “Resh Galutah” (political head of the Jewish community) of the Jews of the Russian Empire – of which Lithuania was then a part of – and of worldwide Jewry in general. He was active in defending the interests of the Jews in various locations, in nurturing the unification of the nation, in encouraging settlement in the Land of Israel, and in the liberating of abandoned wives. One of the books he wrote on Jewish law is called "Nachal Yitzchak", this name is implied in the name of the neighborhood, in the name of its main street and in the name of the Yeshivas that were established in memory of Rabbi Yizchak Elchanan both in Israel and abroad.

Following are explanations about the rest of the streets in the neighborhood:

 

Igal Alon – Commemorates the memory of General (Res.) Igal Alon (1918 – 1980), one of the Israeli nation's most significant commanders and politicians of the twentieth century. He was born in Kfar Tavor, among those who founded Kibbutz Genosar (See below) and, among others, he was the commander of the Palmach, the commander of the southern front during the War of Independence, a member of the Knesset representing the "Achdut Avoda" and "Labor" parties, a minister and Deputy Prime Minister. The street was previously called "Giborei Israel".

 

Ben Shemen – Named for the Youth Village and the moshav (cooperative settlement) of the same name located about four kilometers east of Lod. The Youth Village that was founded in 1927, on the same site as an agricultural school that had been active in 1906-1907, came to be one of the most significant institutions of Aliyat HaNoar (youth immigration project). (See in the following). The moshav developed from a settlement that had been established in 1911 under the initiative of Professor Boris Schatz (1867 – 1931) a native of Lithuania, as a settlement for immigrants from Yemen. The source of the name of the settlement is taken from the Book of Isaiah: "A vineyard had my beloved on a rich hilltop, Ben Shemen. (Chapter V: 1).

 

Binyamini – This street commemorates the memory of Dr. Aharon Binyamini (1886 – 1943), a physician and member of the revisionist movement, who founded the Max Nordau National Doctor’s Association; who was active in improving the Tel Aviv environment and who worked for the benefit of the Jews of Caucasia, the region where he was born.

 

Bruria – This street is named after Bruria (Second Century A.D.), the daughter of Chanina Ben Tardion – one of the ten killed by the Romans for studying Torah in public– and the wife of Rabbi Meir of the great Tanaiim, one of the leaders of the generation following Bar Kochba, and who was considered, most likely, to be the one known as "Ba'al Ha’Nes" (the miracle maker). Bruria was the only woman whose opinions on Halacha (Jewish religious laws) were accepted by the scholars of her time and she is a model image of virtuosity and intelligence.

 

Genosar – This is a kibbutz that was established in 1937 in the Genosar Valley, on the northwestern side of Lake Kinneret, which in the days of the Mishna (oral Jewish laws) and the Talmud was called Lake Genosar, or Genosar. On the kibbutz site are The Igal Alon Museum(See above) and the remains of an ancient settlement.

 

Yosef Zimman – This street is in commemoration of Yosef Zimman (1882 – 1969) a native of Lithuania, a yeshiva student and a business man, who became a prominent figure among the initiators and founders of Nachalat Yitzchak. He served as the Mukhtar (village head) on behalf of the mandatory government and was also the chairman of the neighborhood committee. In addition, he founded the Association of Lithuanian Immigrants in his home, he established the Credit-Gomlin Bank (Mutual Credit) and he was active in the Chevra Kaddisha (Jewish burial society) as well as  institutes of charity. Previously the street was called Reach Hasadeh (scent of the field) which reflected the rural nature of the neighborhood up until the sixties.

 

Chayei Adam – This name commemorates the memory of Rabbi Avraham Ben Yechiel Michal Danzig (1748 – 1820), one of Lithuania’s notable Rabbis and who was related by marriage to the family of "HaGaon M'Vilna" (the genius from Vilna), Rabbi Eliahu Ben Shlomo Zalman (1720 – 1797). Rabbi Danzig encouraged immigration to the Land of Israel and he composed “Tfilah Zakah”  which is said on the eve of Yom Kippur, and other books on Jewish law including "Chayay Adam", which deals with laws of “Shulchan Aruch" (the Jewish code of laws).

 

Chafetz Chayim – This is the name of the first essay written by Rabbi Yisrael Meir Hacohen (1838 – 1933), one of the great Rabbis of Lithuania. The name of the essay that dealt with issues of morality and laws on slander was taken from a verse of Psalms (XXXIV: 13). He who "desireth life" founded a famous yeshiva in the Lithuanian city of Radin – and this is where his second name came from, Rabbi Yisrael Meir Hacohen of Radin. He was one of the founders of "Agudat Yisrael" (the religious political party) and he believed that immigration to the Land of Israel heralds the coming of the Messiah.

 

Tirat Zvi – This is a kibbutz in the Bet Shean Valley that was founded in 1937 in the framework of the "Tower and Stockade" settlements (overnight settling in Mandatory Palestine), named for Rabbi Tzvi Hirsch Kalisher (1795 – 1874), a native of Lithuania, who worked towards settling the Land of Israel and who was one of the progenitors of Zionism. The kibbutz heroically withstood the attacks of the Arab forces in 1938 and in the War of Independence. It belongs to the HaPoel HaMizrachi movement the members of which played a role in the expansion and development of the neighborhood.

 

Yokneam – A moshava (settlement), located between the slopes of the Carmel and the Jezreel Valley, which was established in 1935, near the man-made hill covering the remains of an ancient settlement, which in Biblical times was the location of a city of the same name. In the fifties a ma'abara (transit camp for new immigrants) was established nearby which later developed into the city of Yokneam Ilit.

 

Yalkut Ha'Roim – This is the name of a collection (yalkut) of sermons and legends named after a plant (Capsella) from the Brassicaceae family that blooms in the winter and whose fruits resemble a shepherd's purse. In the Book of Samuel I (Chapter XVII: 40) King David's pouch is mentioned,: “And he took his staff in his hand, and chose him five smooth stones out of the brook, and put them in a shepherd's bag which he had, even in a scrip, and his sling was in his hand…" when he went out to fight Goliath the Philistine.

 

Mozes – Named after Yehuda Mozes (1886 – 1956), the founder and owner of the newspaper "Yediot Achronot", and his son, Noach Mozes (1911 – 1985) who moved the building that housed his newspaper to the outskirts of the neighborhood. Noach Mozes was killed in a car accident very near this location. Their name is commemorated in the western section of the neighborhood's main street – which formerly began with Nachalat Yitzchak Street – and also on the bridge (The Noach Mozes Bridge), which until then was called The Nachalat Yitzchak Bridge.

 

M'norat Ha'maor – This an anthology (collection) of legends on issues of morality that was compiled by the Sephardic Rabbi Yitzchak Abuhav (from the 14th century) of the family of scholars from Spain and Portugal, who was one of the great preachers, one of the scholars of ethics and one of the great gatherers of the Jewish legend. He believed that the legends are what illuminate the Torah and that they can be used as a guide for proper behavior. He sorted out the legends and categorized them according to seven subjects, allegorical of the seven candle holders of the holy Menorahs. The book which was printed for the first time in Koshta, in the year of …, it was distributed in tens of editions and translated into several languages all over the Jewish Diaspora.

 

Ma'avar Yabok – Yabok is one of the Jordan river's large streams that runs across the Gilad (today the land of Jordan). The passage is the place that is described in the Book of Genesis (Chapter XXXII: 33) where our forefather, Jacob, battled bravely, was saved and was given the name Israel. With the inspiration of this central event in the history of the nation, Rabbi Aharon Berachiah Ben Moshe of Modena (died in 1639) wrote a book called Ma'avar Yabuk  which discusses customs of calling on the sick, death, burial and mourning. It is on this small street that the first pharmacy in the neighborhood was located, and it is close to the path that led to the cemetery.

 

Nahalal – This was the first workers' moshav that was established in 1921 in the Jezreel Valley, named for the biblical city in the inheritance of the Tribe of Zevulun (Book of Joshua XIX: 15). There is an old agricultural school on the premises. In this context it is only worthwhile to recall the neighborhood's contribution to the development of agriculture in the country.

 

Simtat Netah – This is the name of a plantation farm that was established in 1952, about five kilometers southwest of Gedera. It should be recalled that in the past, near the narrow passageway and in the neighborhood in general, there were fields, citrus groves and many other orchards.

 

Ein Zeitim – An abandoned Jewish settlement about three kilometers northeast of Tzfat. It began as a moshava established in 1891 by new immigrants from Lithuania in a place where in the past there had been a Jewish community. The members of the moshava were banished during the First World War. The place was resettled five more times but it was then abandoned.

 

Aliyat Ha'Noar – This is a street which begins close to the site of the women workers' center, in the Borochov neighborhood, and later on the Borochov Ulpan – who played an important role in the absorption of new immigrants in Israel – and it continues on towards the beginning of the Bitzaron neighborhood; most of the residents who populated the neighborhood upon its establishment were new immigrants. It is no wonder, therefore, that the street was named after the organization of the Zionist movement that focused on saving Jewish children, bringing them to the land of Israel, housing and educating them; in the framework of this movement over 100,000 children and youth were cared for. This project began with the initiative of Recha Freier, in 1932, due to the surging wave of anti-Semitism in Germany, and it became integrated from 1933, headed by Henrietta Szold (1860 – 1945), who the street was previously named after. Earlier on the street was called Avnei Zikaron, a name that has remained for the section of the street that divides between the Tel Aviv and Givatayim sections of the Nachalat Yitzchak cemetery.

 

Emek Bracha – This road stretches over the place where one of the streams of the Ayalon River once ran. It is named for a place that is mentioned in the Book of Chronicles II (Chapter XX: 26), which according to the popular view relates to a fruitful valley, abundant in water, in the Judean mountains about ten – eleven kilometers northeast of Hebron. Rabbi Avraham, son of Rabbi Shabtai Horowitz (who died in the beginning of the seventeenth century),  who was one the heads of the Jewish scholars of Poland in his generation, wrote a book called Emek Habracha which mainly interprets laws, beneficiary blessings, prayers and their customs. His son, Rabbi Yeshayahu (who died in Tiberias in 1630) better known as HaShla HaKadosh (after one of his books) in 1597, published his father's book with the  addition of his own readings.

 

Arvei Nachal – This is a street that began at the Ayalon River and whose banks were covered with trees and water plants, before the Ayalon Thruway was paved and before the Shifmann bridge was erected. Arvei Nachal is another name for the willow tree that grows along the banks of streams and whose branches are one of the four varieties that are blessed on Succoth (the Book of Leviticus XXXIII: 40).

 

Pe'at Hashulchan – The name of this street commemorates Rabbi Yisrael, son of Rabbi Shmuel Ashkenazi, the Rabbi of Shekelov (1799 – 1839), who was one of the first students of the "Genius from Vilna". He emigrated to Israel in 1810, together with other students of the Gaon, and he dedicated his book, Pat Shulchan, that was published in 1836, to the laws related to the land, especially to the field of working the land.

 

Pirchei Aviv – This name reminds one of the neighborhood's rural past which was characterized with the splendid and colorful blooming of the fields and the many plants and flowers that grew there.

 

Pri Megadim – This is the name of a book of interpretation for Shulchan Aruch that draws upon The Song of Solomon (Chapter IV: 13). The book was written by Joseph Ben Meir Teumim (who died in 1792), a native of Galicia, who was a Rabbi in Lebov (Poland/ Ukraine) and in Germany, in other words, in places where many of the neighborhood's elders were born.

 

Shvil HeChalav – This is the name of a galaxy in which there at least 100 billion stars, including the solar system of the Earth. For our purposes, the name of the street symbolizes the dairy products that were produced in the numerous dairy farms that operated in the neighborhood in the early sixties and the large dairies that were opened there, the first of which was the "Tara" Dairy. Dairy farming was one of the major branches upon which, for many years, the Nachalat Yitzchak founders subsisted as well as a great many of its veterans, and in certain periods – it was almost the exclusive source for the supply of milk and dairy products for Tel Aviv and the surrounding area.

 

Totzeret Ha'Aretz – A prominent motive and password in the days of the Mandate and also in several stages following the establishment of the state, when consumers were asked to purchase merchandise manufactured locally to encourage the Jewish, and later on Israeli, industry. Nearby this street and in other areas of Nachalat Yitzchak were several factories, among these the prominent Yitzhar factory. Today, in its place, the Tel Aviv Towers have been built.